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我国九折型材钢铁产业布局进入大变革、大调整的新阶段

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我国九折型材钢铁产业布局进入大变革、大调整的新阶段

发布日期:2017-12-14 作者: 点击:

钢铁产业是国民经济建设的基础性行业,钢铁产业的合理布局有助于区域经济合理、有序发展。改革开放之后,我国进入经济高速增长期,每年需要数亿吨钢材作为经济发展的支持,为钢铁产业提供了巨大的市场,钢铁工业实现了跨越式发展,钢铁企业数量呈现 井喷式增长。彼时,钢铁产业投产即意味着盈利。因此,在过去九折型材钢铁行业高速发展的若干年内,这个资金规模巨大,短期内就能提高税收、提高就业的重工业产业, 曾经是各地方政府产业承接与吸收转移的“座上宾”。

Iron and steel industry is the basic industry of national economic construction. The rational distribution of iron and steel industry contributes to the rational and orderly development of regional economy. After the reform and opening up, China has entered a period of rapid economic growth, which requires hundreds of millions of tons of steel each year as the support of economic development, providing a huge market for the iron and steel industry. The iron and steel industry has achieved leapfrog development, and the number of iron and steel enterprises has shown blowout growth. At that time, the commissioning of the steel industry meant profit. Therefore, in the past several years of rapid development of the iron and steel industry, this heavy industry, which has a huge scale of funds and can increase tax revenue and employment in a short time, was once the "guest" of local government industries to undertake and absorb and transfer. 

从产业布局的角度讲,产业转移本应该是优化生产力空间布局、形成合理产业分工体系的有效途径,在产业的空间分布上一般表现为产业由发达区域向发展中地区转移,在我国多以沿海发达地区向内陆转移,东部向西部转移的趋势为主。


九折型材

From the point of view of industrial distribution, industrial transfer should be an effective way to optimize the spatial distribution of productive forces and form a rational industrial division system。 Generally speaking, the spatial distribution of industries is represented by the transfer of industries from developed areas to developing areas。 In our country, most of them are from coastal developed areas to inland areas, and from east to west。 Trend is the main trend。

在 过去钢铁产业的转移和承接的过程中,成功的案例很多,但也涌现出诸多问题。比如,一些地方只看重“硬实力”的重工业产业,盲目的追求一时的经济增长,没有 客观的把握和分析转移方的需求和自身的承接能力,没有能够准确甄别和选择适合本地的目标产业。一些地方在产业转移和承接的过程中,缺乏与周边地区的分工协 调,单纯的从本地区的意愿和需求出发,造成区域钢铁产业重复布点,与周边形成过度竞争和同质化竞争。还有一些地方缺乏对产业的关联度和带动能力的设计,承 接钢铁产业之后只见钢铁生产,没有形成相关上下游原料产业和工业生产的线性带动,产业链条难以形成闭环。

In the past, there were many successful cases in the process of transfer and acceptance of iron and steel industry, but many problems also emerged. For example, some places only focus on "hard power" heavy industry, blindly pursue temporary economic growth, do not objectively grasp and analyze the needs of the transferors and their own ability to undertake, and fail to accurately identify and select the target industries suitable for the local. In the process of industrial transfer and acceptance, some places lack of coordination with the division of labor in the surrounding areas. Starting from the willingness and demand of the region, they cause the repeated distribution of regional iron and steel industry, and form excessive competition and homogeneous competition with the surrounding areas. Others lack the design of the correlation degree and driving capacity of the industry. After undertaking the iron and steel industry, only iron and steel production is seen. There is no linear driving force of the related upstream and downstream raw material industry and industrial production. It is difficult to form a closed-loop industrial chain.

最典型的范例就是2010年-2015年的新疆地区,随着西部大开发的火热推进,宝钢八一钢铁、新兴铸管在内的多家钢厂在新疆陆续开始大规模投产。据统计,新疆的粗钢产能从 2010 年的 1010 万吨迅速扩张至 2015 年的 2530 万吨,钢铁企业一度有140 家之多。产能的大幅扩张导致供给增速和需求增速产生了严重不匹配,产能利用率反而开始出现大幅下跌。新疆的粗钢产能利用率从 2010 年的 80%下降至 2013 年的 50%,最低的时候仅为29%,钢铁产能从欠缺到过剩,新疆几乎只用了五年时间。低水平重复建设的产业结构在“盛宴”过后变成“一地鸡毛”。而诸如这样的例子,在当时不在少数。

The most typical example is Xinjiang from 2010 to 2015. With the development of the western region, Baosteel Bayi Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. and Xinxing Cast Pipe Co., Ltd. began to put into operation on a large scale in Xinjiang. According to statistics, Xinjiang's crude steel production can expand rapidly from 10.1 million tons in 2010 to 25.3 million tons in 2015, and there were 140 iron and steel enterprises at one time. The large expansion of capacity led to a serious mismatch between supply growth and demand growth, and the utilization rate of capacity began to fall sharply. The utilization rate of crude steel production capacity in Xinjiang has decreased from 80% in 2010 to 50% in 2013, and the lowest is only 29%. It takes almost five years for Xinjiang to reduce its steel production capacity from deficiency to excess. After the feast, the low-level duplicate industrial structure has become a feather in one place. Such examples were not rare at that time.

近日,国家工信部发布了关于《产业转移指导目录(2018年本)》的公示,其中有19个省市涉及了钢铁产业的调整。其中,北京、辽宁、上海、山东、山西、河南、青海、新疆和海南等9地将不再承接炼钢、炼铁产业(见表1)。天津市北辰区,河北省张家口市、廊坊市,江苏省太湖区域、广东省广州东莞等9市的相关炼钢、炼铁产能将逐步引导退出(见表2)。这意味着对钢铁行业而言,供给层面的改革将进一步上升到产业布局的改变,未来我国钢铁产业的布局也将进入大变革、大调整的新阶段。

Recently, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the announcement on the Guidance Catalogue of Industrial Transfer (2018 edition), of which 19 provinces and municipalities involved in the adjustment of the iron and steel industry. Among them, Beijing, Liaoning, Shanghai, Shandong, Shanxi, Henan, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Hainan will no longer undertake steel-making and iron-making industries (see Table 1). In Beichen District of Tianjin, Zhangjiakou City of Hebei Province, Langfang City, Taihu District of Jiangsu Province and Dongguan City of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, the relevant steel and iron-making capacity of 9 cities will gradually lead to withdrawal (see Table 2). This means that for the iron and steel industry, the reform of supply level will further rise to the change of industrial layout, and the layout of China's iron and steel industry will enter a new stage of great change and adjustment in the future.


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关键词:门加强筋方管,九折型材,十六折型材

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